Appendix C (Judge Classes)

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Miscellaneous Abilities

(Comp. Rules section 702)

Cumulative Upkeep

Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. "Cumulative upkeep [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent is on the battlefield, put an age counter on this permanent. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. If you don't, sacrifice it." If [cost] has choices associated with it, each choice is made separately for each age counter, then either the entire set of costs is paid, or none of them is paid. Partial payments aren't allowed. If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep, each triggers separately. However, the age counters are not connected to any particular ability; each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves.

Buyback

Buyback represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. "Buyback [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell" and "If the buyback cost was paid, put this spell into its owner's hand instead of into that player's graveyard as it resolves."

Shadow

Shadow is an evasion ability. A creature with shadow can't be blocked by creatures without shadow, and a creature without shadow can't be blocked by creatures with shadow. Multiple instances are redundant.

Cycling

Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a player's hand. "Cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Draw a card." Although the cycling ability can be activated only if the card is in a player's hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with cycling will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities. Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they're cycled. "When you cycle [this card]" means "When you discard [this card] to pay a cycling cost." These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after it's cycled. Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. "[Type]cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library." This type is usually a subtype (as in "mountaincycling")but can be any card type, subtype, supertype, or combination thereof (as in "basic landcycling"). Typecycling abilities are cycling abilities, and typecycling costs are cycling costs. Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay a typecycling cost. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from activating cards' typecycling abilities. Any effect that increases or reduces a cycling cost will increase or reduce a typecycling cost.

Echo

Echo is a triggered ability. "Echo [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep, sacrifice it unless you pay [cost]."

Kicker

Kicker is a static ability that functions while the spell with kicker is on the stack. "Kicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell." The phrase "Kicker [cost 1] and/or [cost 2]" means the same thing as "Kicker [cost 1], kicker [cost 2]." Multikickeris a variant of the kicker ability. "Multikicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] any number of times as you cast this spell." A multikicker cost is a kicker cost. If a spell's controller declares the intention to pay any of that spell's kicker costs, that spell has been "kicked." If a spell has two kicker costs or has multikicker, it may be kicked multiple times. Objects with kicker or multikicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if they are kicked. These abilities are linked to the kicker or multikicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker or multikicker abilities. Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases "if it was kicked with its [A] kicker" and "if it was kicked with its [B] kicker," where A and B are the first and second kickercosts listed on the card, respectively. Each of those abilities is linked to the appropriate kicker ability. If partof a spell's ability has its effect only if that spell was kicked, and that part of the ability includes any targets,the spell's controller chooses those targets only if that spell was kicked. Otherwise, the spell is castas if it did not have those targets.

Flashback

Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities: one that functions while the card is in a player's graveyard and the other that functions while the card is on the stack. "Flashback [cost]" means "You may cast this card from yourgraveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "If the flashback cost was paid, exile this card instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack."

Madness

Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player's hand. The secondis a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. "Madness [cost]" means "If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but may exile it instead of putting it into his or her graveyard"and "When this card is exiled this way, its owner may cast it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If that player doesn't, he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard."

Fear

Fear is an evasion ability. A creature with fearcan't be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures. Multiple instances of fear on the same creature are redundant.

Morph

Morph is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it's on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. "Morph [cost]" means "You may cast this card as a 2/2 facedown creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than paying its mana cost." To cast a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to casting a cardwith these characteristics (and not the face-up card's characteristics) are applied to casting this card. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs.You can use morph to cast a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it enters the battlefield with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up. You can't cast a card face down if it doesn't have morph. If you have priority, you may turn a face-down permanent you control face up. This is a special action; it doesn't use the stack. To do this, show all players what the permanent's morph cost would be if it were face up, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. (If the permanent wouldn't have a morph cost if it were face up, it can't be turned face up this way.) The morph effect on it ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. Any abilities relating to the permanent entering the battlefield don't trigger when it's turned face up and don't have any effect, because the permanent has already entered the battlefield.

Storm

Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Storm" means "When you cast this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was cast before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies." If a spell has multiple instances of storm, each triggers separately.

Affinity

Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Affinity for [text]" means "This spell costs you {1} less to cast for each [text] you control." The affinityability reduces only the amount of generic mana a spell's controller has to pay; it doesn't reduce how much colored mana that player has to pay. If a spell has multiple instances of affinity, each of them applies.

Modular

Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Modular N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent." If a creature has multiple instances of modular, each one works separately.

Sunburst

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as anobject is entering the battlefield from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this object is entering the battlefieldfrom the stack as a creature, it enters the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it. If this object is entering the battlefield from the stack and isn't entering the battlefield as a creature, it enters the battlefield with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it." Sunburst applies only as the spell is resolving and only if one or more colored mana was spent on its costs. Mana paid for additional or alternative costs applies. Sunburst can also be used to set a variable number for another ability. If the keyword is used in this way, it doesn't matter whether the ability is on a creature spell or on a noncreature spell. If an object has multiple instances of sunburst, each one works separately.

Splice

Splice is a static ability that functions while a cardis in your hand. "Splice onto [subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you cast a [subtype] spell. If you do, copythis card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to cast that spell." You can't choose to use a splice ability if you can't make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that card's instructions. You can't splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If you're splicing more thanone card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, card types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied. Choose targets for the added text normally. Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example, when it's countered, it's exiled, or it resolves).

Convoke

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell with convoke is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to cast thisspell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant.

Dredge

Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player's graveyard. "Dredge N" means "As long as you have at least N cards in your library, if you would draw a card, you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand." A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can't put any of them into his or her graveyard this way.

Transmute

Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player's hand. "Transmute [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card, reveal thatcard, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery." Although the transmute ability can be activated only if the card is in a player's hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with transmute will beaffected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

Haunt

Haunt is a triggered ability. "Haunt" on a permanent means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, exile it haunting target creature." "Haunt" on an instant or sorcery spell means "When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution, exile it haunting target creature." Cards that are in the exile zone as the result of a haunt ability "haunt" the creature targeted by that ability. The phrase "creature it haunts" refers to the object targeted by the haunt ability, regardless of whether or not that object is still a creature. Triggered abilities of cards with hauntthat refer to the haunted creature can trigger in the exile zone.

Replicate

Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. "Replicate [cost]" means "As an additional cost to cast thisspell, you may pay [cost] any number of times" and "When you cast this spell, if a replicate cost was paid for it, copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies." If a spell has multiple instances of replicate, each is paid separately and triggers based on the payments made for it, not any other instance of replicate.

Forecast

A forecast ability is a special kind of activated ability that can be activated only from a player's hand. It's written "Forecast -- [Activated ability]." A forecast ability may be activated only during the upkeep step of the card's owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is activated. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player's hand or until a step or phase that isn't an upkeep step begins, whichever comes first.

Split Second

Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. "Split second" means "As long as this spell is onthe stack, players can't cast other spells or activate abilities that aren't mana abilities." Players may activate mana abilities and take special actions while a spell with split second is on the stack. Triggered abilities trigger and are put on the stack as normal while a spell with split second is on the stack. Multiple instances of split second on the same spell are redundant.

Suspend

Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with suspend is in a player's hand. The secondand third are triggered abilities that function in the exile zone. "Suspend N -- [cost]" means "If you could begin to cast this card by putting it onto the stack from your hand, you may pay [cost] and exile it with N time counters on it. Thisaction doesn't use the stack," and "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this card is suspended, remove a timecounter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this card, if it's exiled, playit without paying its mana cost if able. If you can't, it remains exiled. If you cast a creature spell this way, it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes." A card is "suspended" if it's inthe exile zone, has suspend, and a time counter on it.

Champion

Champion represents two triggered abilities. "Champion an [object]" means "When this permanent enters the battlefield, sacrifice it unless you exile another [object] you control" and "When this permanent leaves the battlefield, return the exiled card to the battlefield under its owner's control." The two abilities represented by champion are linked. A permanent is "championed" by another permanent if the latter exiles the former as the direct result of a champion ability.

Evoke

Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card with evoke can be cast and a triggered ability that functions on the battlefield. "Evoke [cost]" means "You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "When thispermanent enters the battlefield, if its evoke cost was paid, its controller sacrifices it."

Conspire

Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. "Conspire" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it" and "When you cast this spell, if its conspire cost was paid, copy it. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." If a spell has multiple instances of conspire, each is paid separately and triggers based on its own payment, not any other instance of conspire.

Persist

Persist is a triggered ability. "Persist" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, if it had no -1/-1 counters on it, return it to the battlefield under its owner's control with a -1/-1 counter on it."

Exalted

Exalted is a triggered ability. "Exalted" means "Whenever a creature you control attacks alone, that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn." A creature "attacks alone" if it's the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase.

Unearth

Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card with unearth is in a graveyard. "Unearth [cost]" means "[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to the battlefield. It gains haste. Exile it at the beginning of the next end step. If it would leave the battlefield, exile it instead of putting it anywhere else. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

Cascade

Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with cascade is on the stack. "Cascade" means "When you cast this spell, exile cards from the top of your library until you exile a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell's converted mana cost. You may cast that card without paying its mana cost. Then put all cards exiled this way that weren't cast on the bottom of your library in a random order." If a spell has multiple instances of cascade, each triggers separately.

Annihilator

Annihilator is a triggered ability. "Annihilator N" means "Whenever this creature attacks, defending player sacrifices N permanents." If a creature has multiple instances of annihilator, each triggers separately.

Level Up

Level up is an activated ability. "Level up [cost]" means "[Cost]: Put a level counter on this permanent. Activate this ability only any time you couldcast a sorcery." Each card printed with a level up ability is known as a leveler card. It has a nonstandard layout and includes two level symbols that are themselves keyword abilities.

Rebound

Rebound appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack and may create a delayed triggered ability. "Rebound" means "If this spell was cast from your hand, instead of putting it into your graveyard as it resolves, exile it and,at the beginning of your next upkeep, you may cast this card from exile without paying its mana cost." Multiple instances of rebound on the same spell are redundant.

Totem Armor

Totem armor is a static ability that appears on some Auras. "Totem armor" means "If enchanted permanent would be destroyed, instead remove all damage marked on it and destroy this Aura."

Infect

Infect is a static ability. Damage dealt to a player by a source with infect doesn't cause that player to lose life. Rather, it causes the player to get that many poison counters. Damage dealt to a creature by a source with infect isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had infect. The infect rules function no matter what zone an object with infect deals damage from.Multiple instances are redundant.